What is LED or Light Emitting Diode? - Explained

Inside of a LED
Inside of the LED/ Light Emitting Diode by Kisaki.

LEDs are used in wide range of application in the world. Starting from the smart phone displays to the smart watch and the computer that we work on daily and inside the TV and to house illuminating bulbs and etc... LEDs are popular for the state of them and due to the characteristics of the component when compared with other alternatives available in the market. Due to easy to use and cheap to purchase, LEDs are used in many DIY projects.

What is LED?

LED is a type of a diode which is lead by two bases in a semiconductor by creating a p-n junction. LEDs were firstly used in 1962 which really was not a light emitting diode that humans can see. The first LED was emitting infrared light which is a non-visible light for the naked human eye.

LED is made out by semiconductor materials to create p-n junction and act as a diode which allows the flow of current only to one side from the current received terminal which could be anode or cathode. The current carrying a charge which is capable enough to flow by the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When electrons meet holes in the LED it transfer itself into a lower energy level and starting to release energy by the form of photons. Basically the color, and the wavelength or the visibility of the LED is depending on the gap energy of the materials which will be used to make the p-n junction.

LEDs which are available in the market can emit wavelength from infrared, ultraviolet to visible colors to the naked eye. Due to the energy efficiency and the lowest cost LEDs has been used in wide range of applications and keeps developing the size and the energy efficiency and the life time of the LED to use in advanced industrial applications.